What Should Men Know About Prostate Health and Sexual Function?

What Should Men Know About Prostate Health and Sexual Function?

The prostate gland may not be something men think about often, but it plays an important role in both urinary and sexual health. Understanding how the prostate functions and the impact it can have on sexual function is essential for men of all ages.

What is the Prostate?

The prostate is a small gland located just below the bladder and in front of the rectum. Its primary function is to produce fluid that nourishes and protects sperm. During ejaculation, the muscles of the prostate gland contract, propelling this fluid into the urethra where it mixes with sperm to form semen.

Prostate Health Concerns

One of the most common concerns regarding prostate health is benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), also known as an enlarged prostate. As men age, the prostate gland can gradually increase in size, squeezing the urethra and causing urinary symptoms such as frequent urination, urgency, weak urine stream, and incomplete bladder emptying.

Another significant concern is prostate cancer, which is the second most common cancer in men worldwide. Prostate cancer typically develops slowly and may not cause symptoms in its early stages. However, if left untreated, it can spread to other parts of the body and become life-threatening.

Impact on Sexual Function

The prostate gland’s role in sexual function is closely tied to ejaculation. Problems with the prostate, such as BPH or prostate cancer, can affect ejaculation and sexual function in various ways:

  1. Erectile Dysfunction (ED): While the prostate itself does not directly cause erectile dysfunction, treatments for prostate conditions, such as surgery or radiation therapy for prostate cancer, can damage nerves and blood vessels involved in achieving and maintaining an erection, leading to ED.
  2. Ejaculatory Dysfunction: Conditions like BPH or prostate surgery can also affect ejaculation. In some cases, men may experience retrograde ejaculation, where semen flows backward into the bladder instead of out through the penis during ejaculation. This can result in reduced fertility and a dry orgasm.
  3. Sexual Desire: Prostate conditions and their treatments can impact sexual desire and libido due to physical symptoms like pain or discomfort, hormonal changes from treatments like androgen deprivation therapy, and psychological distress from diagnosis and management.

Maintaining Prostate Health

While some risk factors for prostate conditions, such as age and family history, are beyond control, there are steps men can take to promote prostate health and preserve sexual function:

  1. Regular Screening: Men should discuss prostate cancer screening with their healthcare provider, particularly if they are at higher risk due to age, family history, or other factors. Screening may involve a prostate-specific antigen (PSA) blood test and a digital rectal examination (DRE).
  2. Healthy Lifestyle: Maintaining a healthy diet and weight, exercising regularly, and avoiding smoking can contribute to overall prostate health. Foods rich in antioxidants, such as fruits, vegetables, and nuts, may also be beneficial.
  3. Medical Management: If diagnosed with BPH or prostate cancer, there are various treatment options available, including medications, minimally invasive procedures, and surgery. It’s important to discuss the potential impact of treatment on sexual function with a healthcare provider and explore options for managing any related issues.
  4. Communication: Open communication with a healthcare provider and, if applicable, with a partner, is critical. Discussing any concerns or symptoms related to prostate health and sexual function can help identify problems early and find appropriate solutions.


Maintaining prostate health is vital for overall well-being and sexual function in men. By understanding the role of the prostate gland, being aware of common prostate conditions, and taking proactive steps to promote prostate health, men can enhance their quality of life and preserve sexual function as they age.

For more information on this topic, please read these publications from the ISSM Journals: The Journal of Sexual Medicine, Sexual Medicine Reviews, and Sexual Medicine Open Access:

Sexual Function in Patients Treated With Stereotactic Radiotherapy For Prostate Cancer: A Systematic Review of the Current Evidence

Changes in Sexual Roles and Quality of Life for Gay Men after Prostate Cancer: Challenges for Sexual Health Providers


American Cancer Society. (2021). Key statistics for prostate cancer. https://www.cancer.org/cancer/prostate-cancer/about/key-statistics.html

Mayo Clinic. (2021). Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/benign-prostatic-hyperplasia/symptoms-causes/syc-20370087

National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. (2019). Prostate problems. https://www.niddk.nih.gov/health-information/urologic-diseases/prostate-problems

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